I am currently attending the India edition of the European Union Film Festival (EUFF) in Mumbai and it is during one of the film screenings last day that I got the idea for this article. As the title suggests, there are dumb things that people do while they are watching a movie in complete darkness. And here I am going to list them out without much description.
Take a photo of a shot in the film with a flash
Slide unlock their mobile (with the brightness usually higher than average)
Return a phone call after it has rung for a few long seconds
Make a phone call
Get up and leave*
Do something on their smartphone
Get up before the end credits have finished rolling up
Stand in the aisle
Bring their kids who are clearly not interested in cinema
Take a selfie in the middle of a show
Laugh or clap more for than the accepted time span (the upper limit is 3 seconds unless you are at Cannes)
I have to admit that *I have gotten up and left from quite a few movies because they were just too bad to endure but in film festivals this just happens a lot, especially if the entry is free. But there’s no reason why anyone would engage in any of these activities while watching a film. While I get why someone would want to take a photo of a scene in a film (for film Twitter, of course!) and I know they must have forgot to switch off the flash. But what I don’t understand is where is the sensitivity and common sense? Engaging in any of these just goes against the idea of going to the movies. One would rather binge-watch on Netflix at the comfort of their home if they also want to chat with their friend or munch on popcorn all at the same time. This is why we need stricter cinema theatre rules and regulations.
It surprises me more to see such type of behaviour even in film festivals where it is assumed that the audience is more serious and sensitive with the art and their fellow enthusiasts. But I think it is safe to assume that none of these festivals are secure from this type of dumb behavior from its patrons. Be it TIFF or Berlinale or MAMI.
Maybe I am dumb for having pointed them out and spent 30 minutes writing this stub. TN.
On 29 August 2019 the Mumbai Film Festival tweeted out a few photos celebrating their decision to choose Geethu Mohandas’s gritty crime drama Moothon as the opening film for its 21st edition scheduled between 17 and 24 October. It is the first time that a Malayalam-language film is opening the festival, which has for the last four years consecutively honored Hindi-language features (with the odd one A Death in the Gunj (2016) a mix of Hindi, English, and Bengali) and majorly English-language ones before that. So, naturally as a Malayalam cinema connoisseur it made me jump up in joy. It also made me want to look back at all the opening films of the festival since its inception. This list is a product of that desire and MAMI’s contributions in decorating brilliant cinema since 1997.
From 1997 when Jaya Bachchan’s comeback film Hazar Chaurasi Ki Ma opened the inaugural edition to 2010 when it selected David Fincher’s Academy Award-winning The Social Network to 2019 when a Malayalam film is about to finally get a seat at the high table. This is a list of all the opening films of the Mumbai Film Festival (MFF) in its two-decade-long history.
Opening Films of Mumbai Film Festival
Listed chronologically along with the name of the director and the primary language of the film. Sourced from a tweet by MAMI (opens in another tab).
Hazaar Chaurasi Ki Maa
The Sixth Sense
M. Night Shyamalan
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Warriors of Heaven and Earth
Curse of the Golden Flower
The Social Network
Silver Linings Playbook
David O. Russell
A Death in the Gunj
Konkona Sen Sharma
Mard Ko Dard Nahin Hota
Note 1: The festival did not run in 1998 due to a lack of funding by the Maharashtra state government and in 2004 for unknown reasons.(MAMI – A Retrospective, The Big Indian Picture, Tanul Thakur and Roshni Nair, October 2013)
Note 2: For your convenience, this list has been duplicated on IMDb and Letterboxd. Updated every year.
A Little Bit of MAMI History
In the inaugural year 1997, MAMI screened a total of 70 films from 25 countries. The Big Indian Picture reports it as 65 films from 23 countries(MAMI – A Retrospective, The Big Indian Picture, Tanul Thakur and Roshni Nair, October 2013). Govind Nihalani’s adaptation of the Mahasweta Devi novel opened the festival which was then labelled as India’s first independent film festival. This, considering that Kolkata and Trivandrum already had their own versions, Kolkata International Film Festival (KIFF) and International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK), respectively. One other major contender for that label was the International Film Festival of India (IFFI). But then MAMI was founded and it kicked off the first edition on 24 November 1997 with much pomp and circumstance. And it naturally ‘assumed’ the title. According to Rupleena Bose writing for MUBI Notebook, it was originally titled as ‘Festival of Films’ when it launched in 1997, which was partly because of a desire to replenish the dull mood of the Mumbai populace after the 1993 bomb blasts.
Either from the people involved in creating the fest or the type of films that were screened (The Fifth Element, Sholay (1975), and Ankur (1974) to name a few), it is safe to assume that many must have thought that it would revolutionize the industry. But more than either of those, it was self-sustenance that pushed MFF to the fore. More than twenty years later and with at least half a dozen more festivals running in India perhaps as a result, I’m inclined to confirm that it is the biggest cinema extravaganza that India currently has in the global landscape.
It is interesting to learn that the opening edition saw about 200 delegates in attendance and Jio’s part was played by Mahindra & Mahindra then which donated INR 5 lakh as sponsorship. The rumour that PepsiCo India showed interest – because of a lack of funds to run the 1998 edition – in sponsoring the fest in 2000 is actually true, but the organizers declined because they did not want it to be named ‘Pepsi Film Festival’. Nonetheless, India Inc. has been historically generous to the festival as past years have seen companies like Indian Oil (IOC), Star TV, Zee Cinema, Sahara, and Godrej contribute for the sake of continuity of the fest. In 1997 if the festival budget was around INR 10 lakhs, in 2013 it was estimated to be about INR 6 crores, thanks to ample funding by Reliance’s Big Entertainment (now ADAG). This type of funding helped MAMI turn from a cash-strapped passion organization into a real harbinger of creativity and vision for cinema on an international scale. In the next decade, it would not only start new competition sections but also run the only film criticism workshop in India – the Young Critics Lab which began in 2009 as a platform for young cinema lovers-cum-writers to hone their skills and take up film criticism as a serious profession.
One key thing to note here is that the organizers did not want the festival to be influenced by the demands of corporate giants, which is why film selection was and has been entirely up to MAMI. This confirms that there is no ulterior motive by certain elements who would want to push a specific film in which they have a vested interest. All the more reason to celebrate the decoration of Indian features as opening films.
What’s in a Festival Opening Film?
A lot, to be honest.
Since 2015 when the opening film was Hansal Mehta’s Manoj Bajpayee-starring biopic Aligarh, MFF has managed to be the starting point of buzz for creative cinema. How else would one explain the almost cult status that the Internet generation has given to Konkona Sen Sharma’s debut feature? Or Vasan Bala’s Mard Ko Dard Nahi Hota (2018) that took Reddit by storm when it released on VOD earlier in 2019? MFF helps native films create buzz, the type that Moothon is currently enjoying as it approaches its worldwide premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) along with other Indian award hopefuls like Lijo Jose Pellissery’s Jallikattu and Shonali Bose’s The Sky is Pink.
But this was not always the case. One of the main reasons why most of the MAMI opening films have been foreign imports is because of the buzz that existed and which they wanted to bring into the country’s mainstream cinema. Moneyball (2011), The Social Network (2010), Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), and The Sixth Sense (1999) have enjoyed heightened status and success in Mumbai and elsewhere in India also because they all were opening films.
In 2018, Vasan Bala’s action comedy opened the festival. And despite the hiccup by its producers due to an issue with distributors and theatre-owners, the film got a theatrical release in 2019. The buzz that MFF created in October 2018 definitely needs to be attributed.
An opening film sets the tone for a festival and in some cases it can also influence the rest of it. In 2017, Anurag Kashyap’s Mukkabaaz got the honour and the response was lukewarm. Although I could not attend the entire week-long event, I can confirm that the overall fest in terms of footfalls and audience response was much weaker than what it was in 2015 and later in 2018, one of my most successful years as far as MFF and me are concerned.
I like statistics so it makes sense to take a look at what numbers tell us about the MAMI opening films. Here you go:
12 are English-language features, four Hindi, three Mandarin, one each Polish and Malayalam
Three have been directed by women filmmakers, 18 by men
A total of eight Oscar wins for three out of 21 titles
Only one unanimously poor critical performer (Susanne Bier’s Serena (2014))
I think selecting Moothon (The Elder One) as the opening film for the festival by an organization that is largely influenced by Bollywood cine artists is a breakthrough. Admitting that cinema is the common language that we speak, MAMI has only transcended beyond what it set out to achieve when two decades ago industry stalwarts like Amol Palekar, Sudhir Nandgaonkar, Kiran Shantaram, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Shabana Azmi, Shyam Benegal, Gulzar, Ramesh Sippy, and others came together and sowed a seed that now gives us a taste of the best of Indian and world cinema every year. In 2018, the festival was one of the best experiences I had.
It is important to also note that the main intention of MFF was to create a platform for appreciation of regional films. International films already got the attention they desired, but for a secular and multi-lingual country like India where there are films being made in all major languages, MFF was a necessity more than a fad. The selection of a regional film (Moothon is produced by artists majorly from the south Indian state of Kerala) for the 2019 edition is a step towards an extension of fulfillment of that vision.
It is difficult to trace the history of MAMI but this list will probably act as a type of archive as we move ahead and break more barriers. TN.
The 21st Jio MAMI Mumbai Film Festival with Star begins on 17 October 2019 and ends on 24 October 2019. Registrations are now open over at BookMyShow with one pass worth INR 500 ($7).
I would have used the term ‘motor vehicle’ but then I would not have been able to include my first-ever road accident that occurred back in 2004. It was a bicycle versus an auto rickshaw crash. This also means that I have been using faster transport mechanisms for about 15 years now, making this a perfect time to chronicle some of my worst road incidents, one of which haunts me till this very day.
Here are six times when my vehicle hit another or when another vehicle hit mine or when both the riders/drivers were equally responsible. Unfortunately, there’s no way to find out who was to be blamed during any of these crashes. We will have to depend on my point of view. Let’s start.
Bicycle Vs Auto Rickshaw – 2004
I had recently been gifted a bicycle – a black Hero Razorback bought from a private dealership in Airoli. Because I had managed to learn how to ride beforehand with the help of a friend named Alex, I was allowed to take it out for rides freely.
I also had a group of friends with whom I often went for cycling sprints. It is while returning home from one of these that I crashed into a stationary auto rickshaw. That day I learned that you should not put all your trust on mechanical brakes.
The fault was mine because I was at a good speed of ~30 kmph in a crowded street. I would have not crashed had I known that rains can restrict ability of a braking system. The rickshaw driver let me go with a minor admonishment but then years later I wrote something generalizing him.
Motorcycle Vs Sedan – 2014
Fast forward ten years and I now ride a motorcycle – a black Honda Unicorn 150 CB. Thanks to my friends Mitesh and Jithin, I quickly learned how to ride the two-wheeler before taking it for a ride on my own.
It is during one such solo riding in Kopar Khairane that I nicked into a sedan’s passenger-side mirror. It was a busy street and I had crossed about ten meters before I looked back at the car and the driver. I mouthed an apology and the driver waved me off with a smile. Don’t know if it was the apology or the admission but none of that has worked for me ever since, as we will learn later.
This was the safest crash because neither of our vehicles sustained any damage.
Hatchback Vs Motorcycle – 2016
This was probably the most devastating and also the one that involved my entire family save for my dad. We were on a pleasure trip to Murud in Maharashtra, a month after we bought a second-hand maroon Hyundai i20 Magna from a family friend. I was still a rookie driver, trying my luck at our first long trip outside Mumbai. That was probably the first mistake.
I was fairly confident of my driving skills, but that didn’t help me manoeuver the vehicle properly as we hit an oncoming two-wheeler. The bike first hit my right-side mirror, breaking it into pieces, and then slipped into a corner of the zigzag road, eventually hitting a tree. The rider did not sustain any injuries but he claimed otherwise. And so did 100 of his friends who he quickly called up to threaten me and my family. We ended up being traumatized and settling the dispute privately as it had soon turned into a religious issue, something that the on-duty policeman seemed to have enjoyed that day.
I like to believe the blame was on both of us, but the financial and emotional damage was one-sided. It temporarily put me in a state of tizzy.
Hatchback Vs Scooter – 2017
This occurred in a crowded place in Kopar Khairane. I was trying to get my car out of the busy street when my front bumper slightly – just lightly like a feather touches the ground – touched the back of a pink Scooty Pep. The helmetless rider, along with his kid, got out and started splashing expletives in Marathi.
I asked him to relax without downing my window glasses. He appeared to calm down as he took a look at the back of his scooter, gave me another look as if I had rammed into his kid and he was forgiving me, sat on and took off. The surrounding brouhaha as a result of the drama did not seem to matter to him at all.
I am to be blamed here, but then I have some questions:
Can’t two vehicles even slightly scratch each other when you are out on the road?
Why do some people take so much care of their vehicles (more than themselves at times) when they know vehicles are just temporary objects you use to get from A to B?
Why do these people wear their vehicle-protectiveness as a hat of pride?
This brings me to my most recent experience.
Hatchback Vs Hatchback – 2019
Around the dusty area of Panvel, my car rammed into a white Maruti Suzuki WagonR, denting its bumper and screwing up the parking sensor. The guy put on his aggressive suit and started talking like, again, I had rammed into his person. So much drama evolved from that minor crash that I almost ended up giving him the keys to my house. I began my response by admitting my mistake and that’s where onlookers started grabbing popcorn.
I was driving at 60-70 kmph and it was raining, together which led to the crash. But the lack of basic empathy from the victim left me startled, as I moved on to a state of depression for two weeks.
Hatchback Vs Sedan – 2019
This was on our way to Girgaum Chowpatty. Just before the Metro cinema turn, a golden Honda City scratched into my car and sped off before the lights turned red. I think it did more damage to their car than it did to mine, so we’re square, I guess.
The traffic policemen witnessing the scene remained motionless for a few seconds. Then they went back to chatting. Thankfully, it would have cost me a few hundred bucks for the mistake of someone else because my PUC certificate had expired the previous month.
Riding or driving on the roads these days does not come without its fair share of issues, regardless of who’s to be blamed for the ‘issue’. And the best way to stay calm and live life is to use public transit and avoid private travel as much as you can. You need peace? Use your car and bikes less often. TN.
A lot happened to Publicis Groupe and me over the past few weeks. It announced the merger of Convonix and Resultrix brands under Performics India in May and the completion of Epsilon’s acquisition early last week. I completed four years with one of its agencies a day before the second announcement. And instead of recording my experience and spilling some beans on LinkedIn like I did in 2018 I thought of creating this: a comprehensive list (plus my first try at an infographic) of all the Publicis Groupe agencies in the world.
For your reading convenience, this write-up is divided into four sections: the infographic (with links to downloadable PDF and high-res JPG), a bit of personal history and why I decided to do this and how, the entire list, and some more information about Publicis Groupe.
Here you go!
All Publicis Groupe Agencies in the World – an Infographic
I am a sucker for logos the same way I am a sucker for movie posters and design. So, when the idea to create this list struck me I immediately began collecting good-quality image files of logos of different brands under the Publicis family.
This infographic below is the product of at least four hours of web extraction in a span of three weeks where I went beyond Google to scrounge for the latest identities of various Publicis brands. How I did that can come later. For now for your viewing pleasure: all the Publicis Groupe agencies in the world (including the recently acquired Epsilon) in a single frame.
(Note – The PDF file can be downloaded from Scribd here (2MB). The high-resolution image file from Imgur here (1MB).)
It should be noted that some brand logos were omitted because they were either not found on the web (or I was unable to find them) or they were a part of an agency’s regional concern. For example, Digitas has presence across the globe where it is categorized as Digitas India and Digitas Hong Kong. I chose to skip those logos because of redundancy and a lack of space. But if you are a brand fanatic like me you should check out their website. Their logos are to die for; just look at the one for Kuala Lumpur. While you’re at it, also check out the logo for Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH) (on whose website’s colour scheme is my CV based, by the way). And then take a look at my favourite logo of the Publicis lot here:
I am also a fan of logos of Publicis Lupe, North Strategic, Starcom, Marcel (reminds me of logos of ING bank and Lowenbrau lager), Leo Burnett, Vivaki, and Publicis Health Media.
Logos that are relatively bigger in size than the ones surrounding them points to their individual stature in their respective hubs. For example, Starcom and Performics have been given huge real estate in the infographic not only because they contribute a higher revenue to the Groupe but also because they are an integral part of the hub (Publicis Media) they are representing. Compare this with ZenithOptimedia under Zenith and B2B Group under Performics.
Logos were sourced from websites, social media handles, or press releases of respective brands. To state the obvious, the brands own the copyright to the logos and other associated trademarks. This website is not monetized with ads.
Like I mentioned before, I am obsessed with brand identities. One of the first things I did when I learned that my agency is part of a huge holding group was to go on the Internet and read up about its history and eventual amalgamation. It is then when I found that Publicis is part of the Big Four in advertising, similar to how they have it for accounting. There may be a fifth one now (Dentsu Aegis Network or DAN) but let’s not digress.
Then when I found out that there are hundreds of companies scattered across the globe under the Publicis umbrella, I had to explore them. Not because I am interested in the group’s Talent in Motion facility or the Power of One idea, but because of the sheer existence of so many brands under one larger brand name.
Advertising and marketing pundits may be divided in their opinion about why that is so (a conversation that erupted earlier in 2019 when Accenture Interactive acquired Droga5), but I am personally focusing on the brand and work diversity, the scale, and the massive control that Publicis has in the field. That a young man’s brainchild first formulated in 1926Publicis was founded in 1926 in Montmartre, Paris by a 20-year old Marcel Bleustein who named it so based on the French word for advertising (Publicité) and the French sound for the number six (cis). He was born in the year 1906. (History, Publicis Groupe –https://www.publicisgroupe.com/en/the-groupe/History) would go on to help pioneer and then influence an entire industry over a period of nearly a century simply stuns me. This article is possibly a byproduct of that stupefaction.
A Bit of Personal History with Publicis
Ever since I joined Performics India (erstwhile Performics.Convonix) in July 2015, I was smitten by its creative work and all the branding that I observed as an employee. The phase-wise change in logos and the branding as the Mumbai-based small-time digital marketing agency (founded in 2003) slowly got merged to the Groupe can be best seen through the changing designs of the envelope that enclosed my appraisal letters.
The first appraisal letter in 2016 was delivered to me in a white envelope, the second in 2017 in a black envelope with the SMG Convonix branding, and the last two in 2018 and 2019 with the branding of Performics.Convonix (green + white).
So much that this is an essential exercise as I celebrate my fourth anniversary with the company.
Another reason that I remember is the email conversation between me and my agency’s Co-CEO Sarfaraz Khimani during the 2019 edition of the Convonix Premier League (CPL) which fortunately hasn’t undergone any change in branding. It was something about a bump in his responsibilities in the organization and I had quipped how I did not understand how the hierarchy really worked. I think I have some idea now.
The best way to describe this attempt is to liken it to first degree madness. Why else would someone spend hours to attempt such a list when the Groupe already has a web page dedicated to it. In my defense, there are a lot of missing objects on that page and does not really appreciate its own gargantuan scale. It might be Publicis’s modesty or the need to only push the bigger brands on its website. And this here is like an extended version of it.
I started my research with the Publicis website, slowly moving on to standalone websites of all the other brands. Since the list is just too big and the companies only accessible to the regions they are relevant to, I had to use a couple tricks to get past the frontend. I used VPN to access some websites in the Middle East and Latin America, used a digging tool to extract image files from the websites, used a conversion tool to convert SVG image files to PNG, and sometimes depended on third-party platforms to understand what the latest logo of a brand is. AdAge, Campaign, and The Drum really helped.
The amount of changes some of these logos have undergone is mind-boggling. And these companies sometimes do not announce it, making such exercises a tad difficult. But who is complaining?
At the end of this exercise, I had a Word document of all the companies under the Publicis umbrella and a folder containing all the logo files. I used PowerPoint to create the infographic which should confirm why the hi-res image (if you downloaded) is not really hi-res. The PDF is much better.
The List – All Publicis Groupe Brands
I have added footnotes wherever needed and tried to expand the abbreviations. In cases where brands have two or more names, I have stuck with the one mentioned on their website or on an official Publicis site.
As noted earlier, country- and city-specific brands are not included. Other than the four hubs mentioned in the infographic, this list also has two extra solution centers as found on the Publicis Groupe website.
The brands are classified according to the following solution hubs and their sub-organizations based on the mantra of “no solo, no silo, no bozo”:
Publicis Communications – creative communications
Publicis Sapient – consulting, data science, digital technology
Publicis Media – analytics, performance marketing, content, data
Publicis Health – creativity and technology in health sphere
Global Client Leaders – bridge between agencies through the Power of One and Re:Sources (Publicis’s finances solution)
Specialized Agencies (possibly now defunct)
Here you go:
List of Publicis Groupe Agencies in the World
Listed in random order.
Publicis.Sapient (Sapient Corporation)
Sapient CorporationSlightly meta here but sources tell me there is an entity such as this under Publicis.Sapient.
Leo Burnett Group
Leo Burnett Worldwide
Leo Burnett Tailor Made
Moon Walk Communications
Moon Walk PR
The Creative Council
Publivision (Grupo Zwela)
The Dialogue Group
DigitasDigitas makes an appearance in most solution hubs hinting at its diverse portfolio.
Welcomm Publicis Worldwide (Publicis Modem Portfolio)
Zero Pozitive Publicis
Loeb & Associés
Publicis GSS (Glickman Shamir Samsonov)
Super Push (Publicis/Dialog)
Ove Brand | Design
Publicis 133 (Publicis Luxe)
Publicis + Dialog
Saatch & Saatchi
Law & Kenneth (L&K)
IAL (International Advertising Limited)
Saatchi & Saatchi + The Geeks
Saatchi & Saatchi Pro
Middle East and Africa
Team One USA
Saatchi & Saatchi Worldwide
Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH)
First Click Consulting
Publicis Health (Publicis Healthcare Communications Group or PHCG)
Saatchi & Saatchi Wellness
Publicis Health Media
Publicis LifeBrands Medicus
Global Client Leaders
The Power of One
Médias & Régies
(Note – List last updated on 15 July 2019.)
Some More Publicis Information
Apart from these agency brands, Publicis also has an AI tool called Marcel (as a tribute to the founder) which aspires to connect all the 80,000+ people across 100+ countries in the Groupe network to collaborate and find solutions. I see it as an extended and a possibly automated version of its Power of One idea. It was unveiled in May 2018 at the second Viva Tech conference in Paris and is currently in beta mode. Last I checked, it is not available in India.
The Viva Technology conference is a biannual conference that Publicis organizes in partnership with Groupe Les Echos to discuss the trends and innovations in the media industry.
Now that I am done with Publicis, the next logical step is to mimic this article for the other bigwigs in my industry: WPP, IPG, Omnicom, and DAN. Obviously, I will next explore Omnicom because in 2014 it tried to merge with Publicis and they failed. A mention of such a historic event to close this otherwise futile exercise? Seems about right. TN.
Publicis was founded in 1926 in Montmartre, Paris by a 20-year old Marcel Bleustein who named it so based on the French word for advertising (Publicité) and the French sound for the number six (cis). He was born in the year 1906. (History, Publicis Groupe –https://www.publicisgroupe.com/en/the-groupe/History)
I originally wanted to write about airline livery, a mildly interesting topic that you can read up on Wikipedia now. But then Jet Airways, one of my favorite airlines in India, announced its premature death and I couldn’t control exploring the history of other airlines in India that have gone under for various specific reasons. Then Santosh Desai shared his opinions on the Jet Airways crisis last week in a TOI column, where I read mentions of defunct airlines like Damania and Archana for the first time, and I think this was called for.
Here’s a list of almost all inactive airlines in India, checked and verified a day before publishing. Most of these have been forgotten, with some names not even in my parents’ memory (the elder one was born in the 1950s) – all of which makes this a sadistically interesting exercise for me. There are a lot of reasons here why airlines went bust, mostly voluntarily to avoid further disaster, but one common factor is shortage of money due to a common reason of high fuel prices. Reminds me of a time when Germany’s Lufthansa said it is difficult to run an airline in India because of the “high cost of operations”. Jet will agree. And so will some of these four dozen and more now defunct airlines in India. But there’s a hidden reason why some of these companies embraced death. See if you can find that out.
List of Airlines in India and Why They Shut Down
This list of airline graveyard is in alphabetical order. To state the obvious, most airlines permanently stopped their services because of eventual license (Air Operator Permit aka AOP or Air Operator’s Certificate or AOC) suspension or cancellation by the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) or suspension by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) which is why I haven’t added that as a reason. I have focused on what led to the licence revocation.
Cargo and charter carriers are not included. Those that have been merged or acquired are also not added unless the merged or acquiring entity has ceased operations, except in some notable cases like Tata Airlines and Air Sahara. Suffixes and prefixes like “airlines” and “airways” are mostly not included to allow brevity, unless absolutely needed. You may have to scroll up and down because some of these airline names have direct connections.
Air Asiatic – Legal hassles involving chairman and managing director K C G Verghese who went on to write an autobiographyThomas George And Ors. vs K.C.G. Verghese And Ors. on 7 June, 1994 – Indian KanoonAir Asiatic was the first airline to get a private air taxi operator license in India, circa 1989 (Review of “Wheels and Wings: An Autobiography by K.C.G. Verghese” – Anil Aggrawal, 2007)
Air Carnival – Unsafe and unreliable service, cash crunch
Air Costa – Cash crunch
Air Deccan – Acquired by industrialist Vijay Mallya and renamed as Simplifly Deccan, eventually converted to Kingfisher Red (see Kingfisher below)
Air Dravida – Cash crunch; shut down the same year it hoped to commence its operations after failing to create a fleet using aircraft from Canadian aerospace firm Bombardier
Air Mantra – Low seat occupancy
Air Pegasus – Cash crunch
Air Sahara – Renamed from Sahara Airlines in 2001 and then acquired by Jet and again rebranded as JetLite in 2007 which converted it from a “full-fare airline” brand to a “discount airline”Sahara Airlines history – Jennifer Mangally, USA Today before merging it with JetKonnect in 2012 (see Kingfisher below)
Air Services of India – Merged into Indian Airlines
Airways (India) Limited – Income tax issues; merged into Indian Airlines
Bharatair (aka Bharat Airways) – Merged into Indian Airlines
CityLink – Cash crunch; eventually liquidated
Cornecon – Unknown
Cosmos – Unknown
Damania – The Aviation Ministry’s 1995 mandate that private airlines must fly to secondary routes to be eligible for major, profitable ones; acquired by Natural Energy Processing Company (NEPC) and converted into Skyline NEPC (see NEPC below)According to brand strategist Harish Bijoor, Damania was the first to utilize the ministry’s permission to serve alcohol on board its flights, a welcome move allegedly jinxed by the arrival of low-cost carriers (LCC) like Kingfisher, IndiGo, and SpiceJet in the mid-2000s. (The Hindu Business Line, 23 February 2011)
Darbhanga – Gradual fall of the Darbhanga dynasty of Bihar further triggered by the death of its Maharaja Kameshwar Singh in 1962; DGCA cancelled its licence and one of its fleet (a VIP liner, possibly a Douglas) was taken by the Indian Air Force (IAF)In December 2018, Union Minister for Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation Suresh Prabhu tweeted about the foundation stone-laying ceremony of Darbhanga Airport.
Deccan – Operation Polo which resulted in the annexation of the Hyderabad state from the Nizam in 1948, which, in turn, led to its changing hands from the Hyderabad government and Nizam State Railways to the Government of India; one of the eight pre-Independent domestic airlines to be merged and converted into Indian Airlines under the Air Corporations Act (see below)In 1953, eight pre-Independent private airlines – Deccan, Airways (India) Limited, Bharat, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga, Indian National Airways, Tata, and Air Services of India – were nationalized and merged and converted into Indian Airlines Corporation (IAC), which later became Air India after its domestic and international fleet joined hands until the early 1990s when the national monopoly of the skies changedDeccan was the first airline of south India, bankrolled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, taking cues from the Tatas.(The plane that made India fly – Muthiah, The Hindu, 20 November 2006)
East-West – Murder of managing director Thakiyudeen Wahid which added fuel to its financial problemsEast-West was known for its alleged ties with underworld mobster Dawood Ibrahim. “I gave the instructions for Wahid’s killing”, underworld don and Ibrahim’s arch nemesis Chhota Rajan said in an interview with India Today’s Special Correspondent Harinder Baweja, 31 January 1996
Goa Way – UnknownDutch aviation enthusiast and photographer Ruud Leeuw mentions something about a deal between Lufthansa Cityline and Goa Way Aviation falling through. (20 May 2004)Goa Way was branded as “India’s holiday airline”
Gujarat Airways – Intense competition(Airlines That Went Bust – Ranju Sarkar, Business Standard (pdf)
Himalayan Aviation – Merged into Indian Airlines
Huns Air – Possible heavy competition from Pushpaka Aviation and Air India“Pushpaka Aviation gives tough competition to Air-India” – Chander Uday Singh, India Today, 15 April 1981; a zero-casualty accident during landing of its major flight – a Vickers Viscount 768D – at Vijayawada Airport in Andhra Pradesh on 28 August 1980 which reportedly damaged the aircraft beyond repairhttps://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19800828-0; possible consequent financial issues
Indian (formerly Indian Airlines) – Merged into Air India after the formation of Air India Limited (erstwhile National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL)) in 2007; its subsidiary Air Alliance was also merged into Air India along with the latter’s Express brand, all of which are now operational“Why one large airline makes economic sense” – Bhanoji Rao, The Hindu Business Line, 30 June 2005
Indian National Airways – (Pretty successful bout till its) nationalization and merger into Indian AirlinesIndian National Airways was the second private airline to start operations in India (circa 1933), albeit using a government contract, after Tata Airlines. Incidentally, Indian State Air Service was the first, operating in the Karachi-Calcutta route as early as 1929.
Indian Overseas (formerly Mistri Airways) – Cash crunch
Indian State Air Service – Unknown; possible government voluntary withdrawal
Indian Transcontinental – UnknownDuring its prime, Indian Transcontinental Airways partnered with Imperial Airways (now British Airways).
Indus – Cash crunch; inability to obtain safety-critical Bombardier aircraft parts from General Electric’s Commercial Aviation Service (GECAS)
Irrawaddy Flotilla & Airways – Japanese invasion of Burma in 1942 (during World war II) forced the company’s personnel to destroy some of its own fleet (housed in Pazundaung (now in Myanmar)), the rest of which were automatically handed over to the Burmese government in 1948; supposedly the fleet owned by its Chennai division never saw a resurrection as the company went into voluntary liquidation two years laterIrrawaddy Flotilla Company (1865 – 1950) by the Maritime Archives & Library – The National Archives of the UK, October 2008 (pdf)
Jagson – License lapsed without a single regional flight operating between 2009 and 2010Its charter service apparently is still operational between New Delhi and Mumbai.
Jamair – Cash crunch, legal issues, labor problems, increasing competition, and shrinking fleetJamair – Wikipedia (unreferenced and unverified)
Jet – Cash crunch; lack of trust by lenders (mainly SBI)Jet’s subsidiaries JetLite and JetKonnect were discontinued in 2012 and 2014 respectively. As it happens, the former was merged into JetKonnect.
Jupiter – Possible competition by national carriers; lack of profitable routes
Kalinga – Merged into Indian Airlines
Kingfisher (+Kingfisher Red) – Massive financial losses and eventual cash crunch, probably a precursor to Mallya’s fraudulent activities
MDLR – Cash crunch due to the 2007-2008 financial crisis and a rapid rise in fuel prices; tax irregularities which resulted in convictions of several employees; failed to give lease payments to British Aerospace (BA) for its aircraft; founder Gopal Kanda was arrested for abetment of an employee’s (Geetika Sharma) suicide with charges later dropped by the Delhi High Court; eventually became a part of Emirates in 2010MDLR stands for Murli Dhar Lakh Ram (Group); was known for its high number of female employees
Mesco – License withdrawal by DGCA probably by request in 2001; first private helicopter charter company (air taxi) in India and still active in charters and maintenance work
ModiLuft – Mounting tensions with its technical partner, Germany’s Lufthansa; was set to make a comeback as Royal Airways through a different owner(Airlines That Went Bust – Ranju Sarkar, Business Standard (pdf); its permit was eventually bought and converted into SpiceJet by entrepreneur Ajay Singh
NEPC – DGCA’s policy of mandatory ACAS-II/TCAS-II fitments and cash crunch; eventually the IATA suspended it and its subsidiary (Skyline NEPC) for non-payment of duesNEPC Airlines, Skyline Grounded – K Giriprakash, Business Standard, 11 July 1997
Orient – Base transfer from Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) to Karachi, Pakistan; requisition by the Pakistan government post Partition of India; in 1955 was merged with the Pakistan International Airlines (PIA)
Paramount – Legal tussle with lessors of their liners manufactured by Brazilian aerospace firm Embraer; fleet grounding; multiple attempts to restart operations using Airbus and Bombardier aircraft in 2010, and then in 2013, did not materialize as lenders (SBI, again, among others) took its promoters to court (and DGCA) for pending dues and eventually seized the fleet
Premier (aka Easy Air) – Founder Umapathy Pinghapani’s arrestPinghapani, who promoted Premier Airways and its Easy Air brand from the United States, was arrested after he withheld the flying licence of a pilot (M Bhaskar) he had hired. (Anirban Chowdhury, The Economic Times, 4 March 2016); starting trouble; ministry’s no-objection certificate (NOC), which it gathered in 2014 expired a year later even before it could fly even a single flight
Pushpaka Aviation – Financial fallout with Air India, which Pushpaka was an associate of in running international flights between Mumbai and the Persian Gulf in the early 1980s; India Today reported a suspicious revocation of the contract between the parties including DGCA in late June 1983
RajAir (formerly Raj Airways) – Non-viability possibly due to high cost of fuel and competitionIt began as Raj Airways in 1993 and shut down in less than a year before briefly reemerging as RajAir in 1995. (airlinehistory.co.uk, 29 July 2018)
Royal Star – Unknown
Safari – Government’s “very anti-private sector” reluctance to issue permits other than for 24-hour non-scheduled ones, as complained by founder and India’s “Air Commodore” Vijaypat Singhania; one of the first private aircraft operators in India in the 1970sAction man Vijaypat – Archana Chaudhary, The Hindu Business Line, 24 July 2000Safari is still known among aviation enthusiasts for its maintained fleet of three Douglas Dakotas (DC-3)
Sahara – Rebranded as Air Sahara; later acquired by Jet, rebranded as JetLite, and then merged with JetKonnect (see Air Sahara and Kingfisher above)
SGS (aka Air SGS) – Never took off despite a NOC from the ministry in 2016SGS stands for Subhaash Gulaati Group
SpanAir – Grounded in 2014 due to safety violations both inside the cabin and on the ground; it still runs charter services
Svarima – Unknown
Tata (aka Tata Air Services) – Became a public limited company post Independence and was thus registered as Air India; while Air India International Limited catered to international flights, Air India (along with Indian Airlines) flew flights domestically as NACIL/Air India Limited; currently operating all flights under the single brand name of Air IndiaAir India is the first and the only Star Alliance member from India. (Air India to join Star Alliance – Cuckoo Paul, Air Transport World, 25 June 2014)Tata now promotes Vistara as a domestic airline in India in partnership with Singapore Airlines (SIA) and AirAsia India along with AirAsia Berhad.
TAIP – Annexation of Goa in 1961; last of the fleet (Douglas DC-4), which escaped bombing by the Indian Armed Forces (IAF), was flown to Lisbon and never came backTAIP stands for the Portuguese transliteration of Air Transport of Portuguese India
UBAir (UB Airlines) – Unknown or not launchedFDI in aviation: No flights of fancy, yet – Ashwini Phadnis, The Hindu Business Line, 25 October 2004; possible working name for United Breweries (UB) Group’s Kingfisher Airlines
Vayudoot – Money bleeding due to low seat occupancy; was run by the government
VIF – Inability to scale up with its single Dornier aircraft
Vijay – Unknown
Zoom Air – License suspension by DGCA over safety concerns in 2018; attempts to revive fell through in 2019.
That’s a interesting history of airlines in India, isn’t it?
A lot of these players entered the commercial aviation market following the Indian government’s Open Sky policy in 1992, but soon began to bite the dust due to “high cost of operations”, a reason given out by many modern, private players both inside and outside India. Really shows how many businesses aspired to fly high in the world of civil aviation in India and failed. And the small number of airlines active today (GoAir, IndiGo, SpiceJet, Vistara, AirAsia, TruJet, and Air India (Express, Alliance)) is not that encouraging either.
The fact that Jet is trying to revive itself makes me a hopeful man this otherwise dull pre-election-day Sunday. TN.
According to brand strategist Harish Bijoor, Damania was the first to utilize the ministry’s permission to serve alcohol on board its flights, a welcome move allegedly jinxed by the arrival of low-cost carriers (LCC) like Kingfisher, IndiGo, and SpiceJet in the mid-2000s. (The Hindu Business Line, 23 February 2011)
In 1953, eight pre-Independent private airlines – Deccan, Airways (India) Limited, Bharat, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga, Indian National Airways, Tata, and Air Services of India – were nationalized and merged and converted into Indian Airlines Corporation (IAC), which later became Air India after its domestic and international fleet joined hands until the early 1990s when the national monopoly of the skies changed
East-West was known for its alleged ties with underworld mobster Dawood Ibrahim. “I gave the instructions for Wahid’s killing”, underworld don and Ibrahim’s arch nemesis Chhota Rajan said in an interview with India Today’s Special Correspondent Harinder Baweja, 31 January 1996
Indian National Airways was the second private airline to start operations in India (circa 1933), albeit using a government contract, after Tata Airlines. Incidentally, Indian State Air Service was the first, operating in the Karachi-Calcutta route as early as 1929.
Pinghapani, who promoted Premier Airways and its Easy Air brand from the United States, was arrested after he withheld the flying licence of a pilot (M Bhaskar) he had hired. (Anirban Chowdhury, The Economic Times, 4 March 2016)
These are the questions that I shouldn’t be asking myself because I almost never get an answer. I figured I should start asking my friends but then I still want them to be friends with me. So, here goes to the Internet…
Why in my four years in the organization have I never bumped into that person (male) in the washroom who sits on the end of the left side of the forth aisle from the entrance?
Why do some people press the call button of an elevator even when it clearly has been pressed before by someone who then thought it’s better to take the stairs? (More related.)
Why are work meetings still a thing?
Why don’t Mumbai local train travellers buy an ATVM Smart Card instead of having to stand in long lines to get a ticket?
Why do some people get up as soon as the aircraft hits the tarmac?
There’s an interesting message placed on top of the tissue dispenser in the washroom at my workplace in Lower Parel. It but it goes something like this:
One tissue is enough to wipe your hands. Three tissues are enough to wipe your ego.
I need to find the person in my agency’s HR/Admin department who was behind this message and congratulate them. While I gather the time and courage to do that, I thought I’ll point your focus to how this little placard and its holy message has been received by the people who use the washroom.
I don’t think I have seen anyone – at least when I’m in the washroom too – respect the underlying point of that message. It’s like almost invisible to them or they have reached a point where they have started to ignore it with the help of the workings of their ego. Whatever it is, all I know is that the number of hand tissue strips that one uses can help us identify the type of person they are.
(Note: This article counts a paper napkin of the size of approx. 18 x 22 cm as one tissue strip. The type that comes off a dispenser near the hand wash area which is now being slowly replaced by electric hand dryers. For the worse.)
So, here’s a list of types of people according to the number of tissue strips they use. It is possible that you might realize you are one of these people. Apology not delivered.
Zero Tissues – Does not mind that their folded handkerchief has created a slight protuberance over their pocket. Does not get annoyed when they accidentally step on a watery surface with socks on. Is okay with stuffing the wetter version of their handkerchief back to where it came from. Will die by age-related complications.
One Tissue – Knows that climate change is not a hoax. Takes part directly or as an armchair activist in discussions involving waste management, land fills, and environment conservation. Aspires to switch off the fans and lights in Mumbai local trains when they are not in use but forgets or has not yet been able to do so. Does not get offended when the server at a McDonald’s outlet does not automatically gives tissues along with the order.
I am between these two types of people.
Two Tissues – Uses a lot of water to wash their hands and face. Keeps a kerchief handy but does not use it because they don’t like the feeling of a wet cloth living in their pocket. Thinks their use of things made out of paper over those made out of plastic almost qualifies them for an “environment conservationist” prize. Would be categorized as the next type (on this list) if they had three hands.
Three Tissues – Has a rich first-generation family member. Does not have a tissue dispenser at home. Makes use of all the free stuff at work religiously. Is usually one of the first five people to arrive at a party. Did not follow the news when the Maharashtra government banned single-use plastic materials in mid-2018.
Four Tissues – Bad at statistics. Does not greet people before a meeting. Still uses a saucer to drink tea but does not use a coaster when the cup does not come with it. Suffers from some kind of ailment that limits their performance on bed.
Five Tissues – Can be seen shouting at an empty tissue or soap dispenser. Fought with their school management and failed to get all the washrooms equipped with mirrors when they were in 9th grade. Abhors opinion articles like this.
Six or More Tissues – Monster.
The best argument against this list will come from people who say the number is need-based. I tend to disagree with that unless they are dealing with a post-vomiting session.
Also check out these wonderful messages (Hinglish language in English script) I found on the tissue holder at the popular roadside snackbar Blossom in Khau Galli, Ghatkopar.
In another part of the world, I wish someone created a version of this list involving the length of toilet paper one uses after answering any one or two of nature’s calls. TN.
Image courtesy: Pixabay/bluebudgie
Update: Added my identification + description of a tissue strip. Fixed typos. (22 March 2019)
Update #2: Added image of the message + a gallery of comics related to the cause of less tissue usage. (31 March 2019)